2020 — American mathematician Katherine Johnson—whose trailblazing work at NASA became known to a wide audience through the book Hidden Figures and its film adaptation (both 2016)—died at age 101.
American film producer Harvey Weinstein, whose career ended amid numerous allegations of sexual harassment and assault, was convicted of rape and a criminal sex act; many viewed the verdict as a victory for the #MeToo movement, which sought to assist survivors of sexual assault.
U.S. ground operations began in the Persian Gulf War, more than a month after an air war was launched against Iraq to free Iraqi-occupied Kuwait.
The regime of Fidel Castro adopted the constitution of Cuba, which mandated the operation of only one political party—the Communist Party of Cuba.
American businessman Steve Jobs, cofounder of Apple Inc. and a charismatic pioneer of the personal computer era, was born.
The Voice of America made its first broadcast, in German, to counter the propaganda of Nazi leaders.
The antimonarchical Revolutions of 1848 reached France, the one nation where the insurgency was successful.
American painter Winslow Homer, who captured the interaction of humans and nature in his watercolours, was born in Boston.
Agustín de Iturbide made an appeal for an independent Mexico in the Iguala Plan.
In Marbury v. Madison , the U.S. Supreme Court declared an act of Congress unconstitutional, thus establishing the doctrine of judicial review.
The Battle of Karnal pitted the invading forces of Nādir Shah of Iran against Muḥammad Shah, Mughal emperor of India.
The forces of the Habsburg emperor Charles V annihilated the army of Francis I of France at the Battle of Pavia.