Shimla, Nov. 10 Keekli Bureau

This Day in History


Bolivian labour leader Evo Morales, the first indigenous president of Bolivia, resigned under pressure after monitors claimed that the election—for his fourth term in office—had irregularities, a claim later challenged.


German politician and publisher Helmut Schmidt—who, as chancellor of West Germany (1974–82), was one of the most respected and influential of western Europe’s leaders—died at age 96.


American novelist and journalist Norman Mailer—who was best known for using a form of journalism (called New Journalism) that combines the imaginative subjectivity of literature with the more objective qualities of journalism—died in New York.


After 15 years of negotiations, China’s membership in the World Trade Organization was approved, and the following day Taiwan’s membership was approved.


The American comedy Home Alone, written by John Hughes and starring Macaulay Culkin, had its world premiere; a huge hit, it spawned a number of sequels and became a TV staple during the Christmas holidays.


Soviet statesman and Communist Party leader Leonid Brezhnev died in Moscow after presiding as the leader of the Soviet Union for more than 18 years.


The American freighter Edmund Fitzgerald sank during a storm on Lake Superior, killing all 29 aboard; its mysterious demise inspired a Gordon Lightfoot song that helped make it the most famous shipwreck in the Great Lakes.


The American children’s TV series Sesame Street—which featured a cast of puppet characters that included Elmo, Big Bird, and the Cookie Monster—debuted on the National Educational Television network (later PBS).


The Hope diamond, one of the largest blue diamonds known, was donated to the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C., becoming one of its most-popular attractions.


Turkish reformer Kemal Atatürk, the founder and first president (1923–38) of the Republic of Turkey, died in Istanbul.


Welsh actor Richard Burton—whose best-known performances were of highly intelligent and articulate men who were world-weary, cynical, or self-destructive—was born.


Józef Piłsudski, Polish revolutionary and first chief of state of the newly reconstituted Poland, arrived in Warsaw to declare Poland an independent state.


American poet Vachel Lindsay, who, in an attempt to revive poetry as an oral art form of the common people, wrote and read to audiences compositions with powerful rhythms that had an immediate appeal, was born.


The United States Marine Corps was founded when the Continental Congress ordered that two battalions of marines be raised for service during the American Revolution.


Turkish forces defeated the Hungarians in the Battle of Varna, securing Turkey’s control over Constantinople (Istanbul) and assuring the Ottoman conquest in the Balkans.


Conrad I was elected German king at Forchheim, after the death of Louis the Child, the last of the East Frankish Carolingians.


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