**Dear Kids and Parents**

- Did Multiplication Tables bother you in junior classes?

- Did you find carrying forward 10s and doing subtraction a difficult task?

- Was Division difficult?

- Was adding several single digit numbers also tough?

- Were squaring of numbers, square roots of numbers and then cubing of numbers and finding their cube roots a tough task?

If you said YES to most or all of the above questions then this article on Speed Maths is especially written for you. This article will help you overcome your fear of Maths and help you emerge as Maths champions! The objective is to help kids get over their fear of basic Maths which will help them stand in good stead in the higher classes plus also help them in competitive exams such as the CAT for the IIMs and the CSAT for the Civil Services.

**What does the word Maths mean?**

The word Maths actually means **to learn. **Interestingly a similar word – Polymath – means a person who has varied knowledge.

The word Poly meaning many and the word math meaning learning or knowledge.

** ****10 Maths Concepts which we all used in School Maths but never bothered to find out what they mean?**

** **Q1 What is the Horizontal Bar so frequently used in Maths Called ?

- The Horizontal Bar in between the Numerator and the Denominator
- Horizontal Bar above the Radix Sign or the Square Root Sign such as
- Horizontal Bar above repeating Decimals 0.

Q2 What is the Symbol for Infinity called ? ∞

Q3 What is the Symbol for the Division sign called ? ÷

Q4 When was the = sign introduced in Maths and what did Mathematicians do before the = sign was introduced?

Q5 What word describes the symbol for approximate value in Maths? ≈

Q6 What is the word which describes the less than and greater than symbols in Maths < >

Q7 Natural Numbers are denoted by the letter N, Whole Numbers by the letter W but the set of Integers is denoted by the Letter Z. Why the Letter Z? What does Z stand for?

Q8 Why are Rational Numbers denoted by the Letter Q?

Q9 Why are Irrational Numbers denoted by /Q or ~Q?

Q10 What does the letter ∫ and the letters dx in Integral Calculus mean? Who used them for the first time?

**Answers to the Quiz Questions**

A1 Vinculum – its Latin which means to tie or bind

A2 Lemniscate is the Symbol for Infinity

A3 Obelus – Symbol for Division Sign

A4 1650 AD – first used by the Scottish Mathematician David Ricardo – before that Mathematicians would write the words – is equal to

A5 Tilde – on the keyboard you will find it just left of the 1 numeric key

A6 Guillemets – French Word

A7 Zahalen – German for Integers

A8 Q stands for Quotient – since Rational Numbers can be written in p/q form and hence a Quotient can be obtained.

A9 /Q stands for Negation Q – meaning those numbers which are not under the Set Q

A10 Latin Long S which means Summa (short for Summation). dx stands for infinitesimally small particles which have been differentiated and are now being added together. Leibnitz used it for the first time.

**Vedic Speed Maths – Addition**

Unlike conventional addition wherein we begin addition from top to bottom, in Vedic Maths numbers are added from bottom to top.

** **Also any 10s are dropped and shown as a horizontal bar like this -. This simplifies addition and makes for error free addition.

**Add the following 5 Single Digit numbers**

**8**

**9**

**7**

**6**** **

Step 1 | Add 6+7 = 13
Drop the 1 as a horizontal bar and carry forward just the number 3 |

Step 2 | Add 3+9 = 12
Drop the 1 as a horizontal bar and carry forward 2 |

Step 3 | Add 2+8 = 10
Drop the 1 as a Horizontal bar and simply write the last digit 0 at the bottom for the last digit of the answer |

Step 4 | Count the number of Horizontal bars and simply write down the number 3 in front of 0 |

Step 5 | Final Answer is 30 |

**Vedic Speed Maths – Subtraction**

**Steps**

**1st Rule **In Vedic Maths always subtract a smaller digit from a bigger digit such as 9-5, 5-4 etc

**2nd Rule **When the bigger digit is on the top, simply subtract

When the bigger digit is at the bottom, subtract but add a horizontal bar on top of the result like or

** **** **So when you have 99 – 55, you would write the result as 44

But when you are doing 55-99, you would write the result as

** ****3rd Rule **In the final result, you lower the number to the left of any number with a bar on top by 1

** ****4th Rule **The Rule of Subtract all from 9s and the last from 10

Let’s look at the above rules collectively by doing a simple subtraction

** **** 9 2 8 7 6 4 2**

**7 5 9 8 4 8 1**

** 2 ** ** ** ** ** ** 2 ** ** 1 **

**Step 1**

** **** 1 6 8 9 1 6 1 Final Answer**

**Vedic Speed Maths – Multiplication**

Squaring of Numbers ending in the number 5 – that is multiplying a number ending in 5 by itself such as 25 x 25 or 35 x 35

The Rule is very very simple

Simply add 25 to the Right Hand Side of the Result

For the Left side of the Result all you need to do is multiply the number to the left of 5 by the next higher number

**Examples**

**25 x 25 = (2 x 3) 25 = 625**

**35 x 35 = (3 x 4) 25 = 1225**

**95 x 95 = (9 x 10) 25 = 9025**

Even triple digit numbers can be done in a similar fashion

Lets say we wish to square 105 or do 105 x 105

** ****105 x 105 = (10 x 11) 25 = 11025**

**Try the following examples**

**65 x 65 75 x 75 85 x 85**

Squaring numbers beginning with the digit 5 such as 51 x 51 54 x 54

Simply square the digit to the right of 5 and write it down

In case of 54 x 54, it will be 16

Next square 5 which is 25 and add the digit 4 to the right of 5 – so that’s 25+4 = 29

**The final answer is 2916**

**Try 56 x 56 59 x 59**

Multiplying by 11

Say we wish to multiply 34 x 11

Simply write 3 and 8 at the extreme ends as** 3 4**

In the middle simply add 3+4 ** 3 ( 3+4) 4**

Final Answer is 374

**So 27 x 11 is 2 (2+7) 7 = 297**

In case there is a carry forward case such as say 57 x 11

**5 (5+7) 7 = 5 (12)7**

Carry forward the 1 from 12 and add it to the 5

**Final Answer will be 627**

**Multiplying by 99**

**99 x 28**

Simply write the number 1 less than 28 which is 27 on the left hand side

Next what number if added to 27 will make it 99 – that is 72

Write 72 on the right hand side

So 99 x 28 becomes** 2772**

Similarly 99 x 65** = 6435**

There are several quick tricks under Multiplication which are taught through Vedic Maths.